Az ingatlan árverések titokzatos világa

Biztosan te is láttál már olyan amerikai filmet, amelyben pörgő nyelvű aukció vezetők (kikiáltók) próbálják eladni az ingatlant. Ilyenkor akarva-akaratlanul is elgondolkozik az ember, hogy vajon itthon is így megy-e Magyarországon. Van egy pörgő nyelvű fickó, jönnek a licitek és legtöbbet kínáló visz mindent? Egyáltalán mi a menete?

Cikkünkkel bepillantást engedünk a hazai árverések világába és megválaszoljuk a legégetőbb kérdéseket.

Milyen árverések vannak?

Először is nézzük, mit jelent önmagában az árverés, mint szó. A Wikipedia definíciója szerint: “…egy olyan adásvételi eljárás, mely során a legkülönbözőbb árukat kiálthatják ki eladásra és a beérkezett licitek közül a legmagasabb ajánlatot tevő vásárolhatja meg a jószágot: terméket, szolgáltatást, vagy jogot.”

Az árverés nem új találmány, hiszen már ősidők óta bevett adásvételi forma. Története a régészek szerint egészen Kr. e. 500-ig nyúlik vissza.

Az árverés típusai

Az árveréseknek többféle altípusát különböztethetjük meg:

  • Angol árverés

Az árverés egyik legelterjedtebb típusa, amit a klasszikus amerikai filmekben is láthatsz. A kikiáltó megnyitja az árverést egy minimum árral (kikiáltási árral), utána pedig erre érkeznek a licitek. Egyébként ezt használják hazánkban is.

  • Holland árverés

Nevéhez hűen Hollandiában terjedt el, leginkább sajtok és virágok adásvétele során használják.

  • Zárt licites árverés

Itt a licitálás hasonló az angol árveréshez, annyi különbséggel, hogy anonim módon történik. A licitálók ugyanis egy papírra írják le az ajánlatukat, majd miután összegyűjtötték, egyenként kinyitják őket és a legmagasabb ajánlatot kínáló személynek adják el a portékát.

  • Vickrey-aukció (filatelista árverés)

Ezt az árverési formát bélyegek adásvétele során használják.

Milyen ingatlanokat adnak el az árveréseken?

Ami számunka leginkább fontos kérdés, az az ingatlanok árverésével kapcsolatos. A licit során a végrehajtó által lefoglalt ingatlanokra lehet ajánlatot tenni. Árverezésre csupán akkor kerül sor, ha a lakás tulajodnosának és a végrehajtónak nem sikerül megegyeznie és nem tudja rendezni tartozását.

Hogyan zajlik a licitálás?

A licitálás sajnos nem olyan, mint az amerikai filmekben, de éppoly izgalmas – csak éppen online történik a NAV  ezzel kapcsolatos oldalán.

Az árverés maga hasonlít az ismertebb aukciós portálokon történő licitálásra.

Ahhoz, hogy részt vehess rajta, először regisztrálnod kell, de a már meglévő Ügyfélkapus hozzáféréseddel is használhatod.

Ha regisztráció után kinéztél magadnak egy ingatlant, akkor az árverés időpontjától számított 3. nap 21:00-ig tehetsz ajánlatokat. Ha azonban az ajánlatot a lezárást megelőző 2 percben teszed meg, az aukció automatikusan 5 perccel hosszabb lesz. Ez mindaddig megy, amíg a plusz 5 perc utolsó két percében nem érkezik érvényes licit.

Ahhoz, hogy megtedd az ajánlatot, először igazolnod kell az adóhatóság felé, hogy van rá elég fedezeted. Ez az adott ingatlan becsértékének 10%-a, amit átutalással kell megfizetned.

Ezután következik az ajánlattétel, ami a klasszikus vonalat követi. Ajánlhatsz tehát konkrét összeget is (pl. 12 milliót, ha az előző licitáló 11,5 milliós ajánlatot tett). De van lehetőséged automatikus ajánlattételre is, ami azt jelenti, hogy lépcsőnként emelhetsz, egészen az általad megadott legmagasabb limit összegig.

Miután megtetted az ajánlatot, már nem vonhatod vissza. Ha megnyerted az árverést, akkor az adóhatóság értesíteni fog a megadott e-mail címeden. Ezután következik egy rutinszerű felülvizsgálat és ha mindent rendben találtak, akkor tiéd az ingatlan. Ezután 8 napod van arra, hogy elutald a vételár teljes összegét és megjelenj a hatóság előtt az igazolással. Ha valamiért ez nem sikerül, akkor az előlegként befizetett 10%-ot is elveszted.

Ingatlan árverés pro és kontra

Ahhoz, hogy el tudd dönteni, érdemes-e egyáltalán elgondolkoznod az árverésen, összegyűjtöttünk 2-2 pro és kontra érvet.

Pro

  • Ár
  • Biztonságos online rendszer

Kontra:

  • Egy kiszolgáltatott embertől veszed meg az ingatlant
  • Nem tudod előtte megtekinteni

Te mit gondolsz az árverésekről? Részt vennél rajta, esetleg volt már részed ilyenben? Oszd meg velünk a tapasztalataidat!

Források:
https://hu.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C3%81rver%C3%A9s
https://drbakonyililla.blog.hu/2017/07/10/piaci_ar_feleert_ingatlan
https://ingatlanok.hu/hirek/20150514/ingatlan-vegrehajtas-folyamata-ki-vehet-reszt-ingatlan-arveresen

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